Who was Osman Ghazi | How Osman Ghazi Established Ottoman Empire - Lunar Gaze Lunar Gaze: Who was Osman Ghazi | How Osman Ghazi Established Ottoman Empire
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Who was Osman Ghazi | How Osman Ghazi Established Ottoman Empire

Who was Osman Ghazi | How Osman Ghazi Established Ottoman Empire
Osman Ghazi
Osman Ghazi was the first sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and the name Ottoman derived from his name. He was born to Ertugrul and Halime hatun in 1258, in Sogut. He trained by his father Ertugrul Ghazi from childhood. Ertugrul Ghazi gathered people who were ready to give up their life to Islamize the Anatolia and its surrounding areas. Osman improved his skills by listening to the addresses of his father and his commanders and participated with them in several wars and gained victories. Ertugrul Ghazi appointed Osman important duties of the tribe when he himself got old and were far from state affairs. One reason for appointing Osman as the bey was his superiority to his sibling in terms of a sharp mind and precautions. After the death of his father Ertugrul in 1281, Osman become Bey of the Tribe with the union of Oghuz Tribes. Sheikh Edebali was Osman Sheikh and spiritual teacher and Osman never misses the conversations of him. One night in 1277, Osman had a dream when he was a guest in his Sheikh's lodge. In Dream, a moon appeared in Sheikh Edebali’s chest and it rose and then sloped into Osman’s chest. Then from his naval a tree leaped, which grew and its branches spread. The tree branched out so much that its shadows covered the whole world.

In the morning when he woke up, He went straight to Sheikh Edebali and Explains him the whole Dream, Edebali interpreted it and told Osman: 
Congratulations Osman! Allah Almighty has given sovereignty upon you and your generation. The whole world will be under the protection of your children
At age 19, Osman Ghazi tie the knot with Sheikh Edebali’s Daughter, Malhun Hatun. Orhan Ghazi (Next sultan of Ottoman Empire) was born from this marriage. He was born following the death of his Grandfather Ertugrul Ghazi. When Osman Become Bey, Sogut winter quarters, Domanic (A Town in Present Turkey) summer grasslands were governed by Kayi Tribe under the Seljuk Empire. These areas were located on the borderland of the Byzantine. 

Foundation of an Empire

Osman after taking control of the Kayi tribe tried to develop friendly relations with the neighboring territories and he struggles against Byzantine Empire. In 1285, the first known war was made between Inegol and Ermeni-Beli. Following this in 1286, The ottomans conquered Karachaisar with 300 men. The Governors of Inegol and Karachaisar made an alliance and fight against Ottomans but got defeated. In 1288, the First time a church was converted into Mosque and sermon was read on behalf of Osman.  As a result of his efforts the Seljuk sultan sent him gifts and announced him, Bey, on borderlands in 1288. He gave Inonu and Eskisehir to Osman Ghazi and relieved him from paying taxes so the kayi tribe can compensate for the damage done by struggling against the byzantine Empire. The Notable Commanders which Osman had included Samsa Cavus, Konur Alp, Akca Koca, Aykut Alp, and Abdurrahman Ghazi. 

The likely moves of Osman Ghazi who speeded up the raids made the Byzantine landlords on the border more worried. Osman and his commanders conquered Bilecik, Inegol, and Yarhisar. After conquered of these areas, Osman moved his headquarter from Sogut to Bilecik. Osman Ghazi was successfully conquering the borderland under byzantine, At the same time Mongols invaded Anatolia and they took Anatolian Seljuk Sultan Alaeddin Keykubad III to Iran. When Mongols take control of whole lands under Seljuks, The Seljuk commanders and Soldiers isolated, some gathered around Osman Ghazi. Osman Ghazi declared independence in 1299 and begin to build state organization. Friday and Eid sermons in Karachaisar and Eskisehir were recited in Osman’s name. The sermons were important in the Islamic community in terms of proof and validation of the power of a ruler. He appointed Dursun Fakih who was the student of Sheikh Edebali, Muslim Judge and preacher of the Karachaisar.

In 1301, Osman made further conquest and he made Yenisehir the new headquarter. He had new administrative, financial and communal institution houses built in Yenisehir and gave Bilecik to Sheikh Edebali. Osman gave the administration of sultanonu to Orhan Bey, Eskisehir to his elder brother Gunduz Alp, Inonu to one of his comrade Aykut Alp, Yarhisar to Hasan Alp, and administration of Inegol to Turgut Alp.

The administration of Osman was built upon Justice. Muslims as well as the Christian of the conquered land was impressed by Osman Justice. They were also tired by heavy taxes imposed by Greeks commanders. They preferred to go under the rule of Osman Ghazi and decided to obey him as a Ruler. Landlord of Harmankaya accepted Islam in 1313 and went under the rule of Osman.

The ottomans continued the raids and conquered many castles from the coast of Marmara to the direction of the Black Sea. In 1317, Konur Alp conquered Castles in the direction of Sakarya and karatekin. Akca Koca also helped in the expansion of the Ottoman lands. Osman send Orhan Ghazi to conquer Mudanya. With Mudanya conquest, the obstruction of Bursa was strengthened. The Ottoman Raids continued for a one and a half year, many plunders were captured from Byzantine territory. This in turn led the Byzantine empire into a financial crisis. By 1325, Ottoman were able to conquer Akyazi, Ayankoy, Karamursel, and Orhaneli.

All the regions that were conquered were reconstructed and ownerless houses were gifted to veterans. The Ottoman's offices were built. Taxes were imposed on the Christian community related to Non-Muslims applicable law of the Islamic region. After the conquest of Bursa, Osman’s health worsened and after the death of his spiritual leader his health gets worse. When he was in his death bed, He advised his son which shows his love and respect for Islam and his people.
Look after and protect the scholars, virtuous men, artists and literary men who are the power of the state structure. Treat them with kindness and honor. Build a close relationship when you hear about a virtuous man and give wealth and grant him. Enable them to do anything and bring then to your lands so that during your reign the number of scholars, virtuous men increase, and the religious and political duties get in order and improve
The tribe of 400 Tents, located on the border of Seljuk-Byzantine had established an Empire on behalf of Osman Ghazi. Osman left an area of 16 thousand kilometers to his son when he died. He died in 1326 in Bursa and his tomb is in Bursa.

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